# Table of Contents

## 1 Keynote lectures

- Risk in geotechnical engineering and profession prestige 3I. Vaníček
- Challenges in Geotechnical Reliability Based Design 11Y. Honjo
- Safety philosophy of Eurocodes 29J.-A. Calgaro
- Life Quality Index for Assessing Risk Acceptance in Geotechnical Engineering 37D. Straub, A. Lentz, I. Papaioannou, R. Rackwitz
- Developing a LRFD Procedure for Bridge Shallow Foundations 47K. Lesny, S. G. Paikowsky
- Safety Standards of Flood Defenses 67J.K. Vrijling, T. Schweckendiek, W. Kanning
- How Reliable Are Reliability-Based Multiple Factor Code Formats? 85K. K. Phoon, J. Ching, J. R. Chen

## 2 Hazards

- A stochastic approach to rainfall-induced slope failure 107P. Arnold, M. A. Hicks
- Influence of building stiffness and foundation embedding on clays shrinkage-swelling hazard consequences 117E. Jahangir, O. Deck, F. Masrouri
- Mitigation of liquefaction seismic risk by preloading 125F. Lopez-Caballero, A. Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi
- Evaluation of the collapsibility risk of loess based on oedometer test results 135A. Mahler, D. Turi, Cs. Vonza
- Socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards – proposal for an indicator-based model 141U. M. K. Eidsvig, A. McLean, B. V. Vangelsten, B. Kalsnes
- A Guide to Processing Rock-fall Hazard from Field Data 149M. Bauer, P. Neumann
- The effectiveness of protection systems toward rockfall risk mitigation 157G. Gottardi, L. Govoni, A. Mentani, M. Ranalli, C. Strada
- A GIS-based approach for mapping hazardous areas due to geological slope processes: case study for Jesenice municipality in Slovenia 165M. U. Pavlič, B. Praznik
- Landslide consequence analysis – mapping expected losses in the Göta river valley 173S. Falemo, Y. Andersson-Sköld
- A probabilistic approach to risk assessment of slow slope movements 181M. Ranalli, G. Gottardi, Z. Medina-Cetina, F. Nadim

## 3 Risk and Reliability in Geotechnical Engineering

- The Geo-Impuls Programme reducing geotechnical failure in the Netherlands 191P.M.C.B.M. Cools
- Shallow Foundation Design through Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods 199C. Pereira, L. Caldeira
- Risks of Tailings Dams Failure 209J.-F. Vanden Berghe, J.-C. Ballard, M. Pirson, U. Reh
- Reducing Geo-risks for Offshore Developments 217P.T. Power, M. Clare, D. Rushton, M. Rattley
- Probabilistic Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings 225M. A. Shahin, E. M. Cheung
- Assessment of reliability and inherent risk levels of geogrid reinforced soil structures 231F. Bussert
- Variability of the grain size distribution of a soil related to suffusion 239M.R. Salehi Sadaghiani, K.J. Witt
- Evaluation of Failure Probability of Soil Cushions 249M. Zotsenko, Y. Vynnykov, M. Kharchenko
- Knowledge based risk controlling 259J. Zimmermann, W. Eber
- Managing poorly quantified risks by means of national standards with specific reference to dolomitic ground 269P.W. Day
- Risk assessment of uranium mill tailings disposal Boršt, affected by a landslide 275T. Beguš, M. Kočevar, B. Likar
- The evaluation of liquefaction potential of oil-containing sand under cyclic loading 281I-H. Ho, V. R. Schaefer, R. Y.B. Chin
- Management of large construction projects and risk minimization by web-based software technology 289F. Rackwitz, S. Savidis, J. Rickriem
- Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls Using Ant Colony Method 297M. Ghazavi, S. Bazzazian Bonab
- Sensitivity analysis and design and of reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls using bacterial foraging optimization algorithm 307M. Ghazavi, V. Salavaty
- The water level as a time-variant parameter in reliability calculations of river flood embankments 315A. Moellmann
- Reliability analysis of a pile foundation in a residual soil: contribution of the uncer-tainties involved and partial factors 323A. Teixeira, A. Gomes Correia, Y. Honjo, A. Henriques
- Realistic Estimates of the Uncertainties and the Reliability Indices for Shallow Foundation Design Considering Seismic Loading 333S. O. Akbas, E. Tekin
- A comparison of Random Set and Point Estimate Methods in Finite Element Analysis of Tunnel Excavation 341H.F. Schweiger, A. Nasekhian, T. Marcher
- Fuzzy Sets concept for optimization underground gas storage 349B. Žlender, P. Jelušic, D. Boumezerane
- Level III Reliability Based Design employing Numerical Analysis - Application of RBD to FEM - 359Y. Otake, Y. Honjo, T. Hara, S. Moriguchi
- Level III Reliability Based Design employing Numerical Analysis - Application of RBD to DEM - 369S. Moriguchi, Y. Honjo, T. Hara, Y. Otake
- Reliability analysis of shallow foundations subjected to varied inclined loads 377J. Xue, D. Nag
- A Consistent Failure Model for Probabilistic Analysis of Shallow Foundations 385A. Kisse
- Reliability in geotechnical design – some fundamentals 393B. Simpson
- The Effect of Model Uncertainty on the Reliability of Spread Foundations 401W. S. Forrest, T. L.L. Orr
- Reliability analysis of tunnel final lining 409P. Fortsakis, D. Litsas, M. Kavvadas, K. Trezos
- A procedure for determining the characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter 419A. J. Bond
- Determination of characteristic soil values by statistical methods 427C. Pohl
- Resistance Factors for Design of Piles in Sand: Tools to Understand Design Reliability 435K. C. Foye, M. Prezzi, R. Salgado
- Influence of Model Accuracy on Load and Resistance Factor 445Y. Miyata, R.J. Bathurst, T. Konami

## 4 Codes and Standards

- Reliability Assessment of Eurocode 7 Retaining Structures Design Methodology 455S. H. Marques, A. T. Gomes, A. A. Henriques
- Reliability analysis of bearing capacity for shallow foundations based on Eurocode 7 463C. Onisiphorou
- Risk Analysis and Observational Methods in practice: what do new codes improve? 471W. Steiner, S. Irngartinger
- A Comparative Study of Pile Design Using Eurocode 7 and RBDE 481J. Wang, Y. Wang & Z. Cao
- Application of reliability based design (RBD) to Eurocode 7 489T. Hara, Y. Honjo, Y. Otake, S. Moriguchi
- Risk assessment through Romanian codes in geotechnical engineering 497I. Manoliu, R. Ciortan
- Geotechnical safety in relation to water pressures 501B. Simpson, N. Vogt, A. J. van Seters
- Performance Based Design and Eurocode 519H. Heidkamp, I. Papaioannou
- Reliability Theory and Safety in German Geotechnical Design 527B. Schuppener, M. Heibaum
- Findings from the 2nd Set of Eurocode 7 Design Examples 537T. L. L. Orr, A. J. Bond, G. Scarpelli
- Determining design loads – comparative calculations between DIN 1054 and EC7-1 549M. Ziegler, E. Tafur

## 5 Flood Defence

- The use of high quality data sets in flood risk management 559M.T. van der Meer, R. F. Woldringh
- Estimating the probability of piping-induced breaching of flood embankments 567M. Redaelli
- Reliability Analysis and Breach Modelling of Coastal and Estuarine 577M. Naulin, A. Kortenhaus, H. Oumeraci
- Calibration of Piping Assessment Models in the Netherlands 587J. Lopez de la Cruz, E.O.F. Calle, T. Schweckendiek
- Overtopping and Overflow of Flood Protection Embankments - Risk Reduction of Embankment Dam Failure by the Use of Geosynthetics 597K. Werth, R. Haselsteiner, F. Steinbacher
- Automated Engineering in Levee Risk Management 605J.G. Knoeff, E.W. Vastenburg
- Assessment of Levee Breaching Risks to the Pearl River Delta 613L. Zhang, Y. Xu, Y. Liu

## 6 Practical Applications and Case Studies

- Dewatering Design for the Excavation of a Ship Lock Under Uncertainty from Karst-Conduit Dominated Groundwater Flow 625H. Montenegro, U. Hekel
- Case Study On The Assessment Of Sinkhole Risk For The Development Of Infrastructure Over Karstic Ground 635N. Sartain, J. Mian, N. O’Riordan, R. Storry
- Risk management during the reconstruction of the underground metro station Rotterdam Central Station 643R. Berkelaar
- Probabilistic risk assessment of excavation performance in tunnel projects using Bayesian networks: a case study 651O. Špačková, D. Straub
- Analysis of rock burst in critical section of second part of Karaj-Tehran Water Supply Tunnel 661G. R. Khanlari, R. Ghaderi-Meybodi
- The Optimization of the Design of a Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam by the Application of Sand-Gravel Fill Zones 669R. Haselsteiner, V. Balat, B. Ersoy
- Hydraulic Heave Safety at Excavations with Surcharge Filters 677P. Schober, C. Boley, B. Odenwald
- Causes of major geotechnical disasters 685S. Van Baars